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#92633 - 06/11/07 02:57 PM Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss
Theo Gallus Offline
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This archive file is a work in progress on Filamentous Algae (FA) identification and control.

 Quote:
Originally posted by ewest:
From Aquaplant:

Filamentous algae are single algae cells that form long visible chains, threads, or filaments. These filaments intertwine forming a mat that resembles wet wool. Filamentous algae starts growing along the bottom in shallow water or attached to structures in the water (like rocks or other aquatic plants). Often filamentous algae floats to the surface forming large mats, which are commonly referred to as "Pond scums." There are many species of filamentous algae and often more than one species will be present at the same time in the pond.





Magnified FA

Some pics of FA on the surface:



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#92634 - 06/11/07 03:05 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss
Theo Gallus Offline
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Registered: 05/14/04
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Loc: Central Ohio
 Quote:
Originally posted by ewest:
Bruce it (waternet) is a type of FA.

Welcome JHM to the PB forum. Some additional info may help us all to give input. What part of the country are you in and what are your soil/water conditions?
Here is a link on FA including water net and one on FA from TAMU.

http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/2algae.html

http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/database/algae/filamentous_algae_mgmt.htm

And look at this PB post for a possible idea if your conditions warrant. But be careful if you decide to try it.

http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=14;t=000228;p=1#000000

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#92635 - 06/12/07 11:23 AM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss
Theo Gallus Offline
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Registered: 05/14/04
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Loc: Central Ohio
Tilapia, where available and legal to stock, are probably far and way the best biological control for FA. Grass Carp rarely if ever have much impact on FA. These two species and filamentous algae - FA are discussed in many threads on the forum; read about Bruce Condello's tremendously overstocked GC (zero FA eaten) experience here.

Goldens Shiners appear to have some filamentous algae FA controlling ability, at least when present in large numbers. Read about filamentous algae FA and GSH in my pond here.


Edited by Bill Cody (01/21/13 10:17 PM)
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#92636 - 06/14/07 11:33 AM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss
Theo Gallus Offline
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I just KNEW Bill Cody had posted some great info on (chemical) control of filamentous algae FA, and I found it in this thread.

The piece de resistance of the thread is this information & link-filled post which I will quote in its entirety:

Quote:
Originally posted by Bill Cody:
fins, Read the topics about dealing with filamentous algae.
Cutrine & CuSO4
http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=14;t=000120#000000

http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=14;t=000132#000000

http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=20;t=001155#000000


GreenClean
http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=14;t=000127#000000

Manual Removal
http://www.pondboss.com/cgi-bin/ubbcgi/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic&f=20&t=000437

General
http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=14;t=000131#000009

http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=14;t=000190#000000

Barley straw

http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=14;t=000037#000000

http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=20;t=002449#000001

CornMeal
http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=20;t=000088#000001

Aquashade
http://www.pondboss.com/ubb/ultimatebb.php?ubb=get_topic;f=20;t=001307#000005
You have to get up pretty early in the morning to try and top Dr. Perca!

More discussion about using pond dye.
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=461648&page=1


Cody aka Dr Perca offers one additional filamentous algae FA control method that has been discussed on the forum - quick lime (calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime). Note this is primarily for small patches of FA and not to be used as whole pond treatments. Maybe someone can add a link that locates those discussions.

Here are discussions of how to best use Cutrine liquid and granular for FA control.
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=413182#Post413182
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=455029#Post455029


Edited by Bill Cody (01/09/17 10:21 AM)
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#92637 - 07/05/07 06:04 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss
Theo Gallus Offline
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Controlling Filamentous Algae with dye.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ewest addition

Try these on dye, filamentous algae FA and plankton as the base of the food chain - start with 2nd , 3rd and 4th then the archive last.

http://www.pondboss.com/forums/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=92633#Post92633 FA archive

http://www.pondboss.com/forums/ubbthread...ite_id=1#import dye as a control method

http://www.pondboss.com/forums/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=34878&fpart=1 dye - how it works and its effect on the food chain

http://www.pondboss.com/forums/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Board=14&Number=34602 FA and dye discussion



Edited by Bill Cody (01/21/13 10:19 PM)
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#92638 - 07/20/07 08:52 AM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss
Theo Gallus Offline
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Registered: 05/14/04
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Loc: Central Ohio
Note: These photos (by cory, from what is this ) have been tentatively identified by Bill Cody as being Blue-Green "Gelatinous" filamentous algae FA. See Bill's text below:

Quote:
Originally posted by Bill Cody:
It doesn't appear to be the typical filamentous algae that most pondowners have. From your description and since it looks like there is a good amount of gelatinous texture to it, it it could be one of the filamentous bluegreen algae such as Nostoc or Nodularia or possibly a species of Anabaena that forms gelatinous "globs". For a positive identification it needs to be examined with a microscope by someone familiar with algae. The gelatinous nature will likely make it difficult to kill with chemicals because the chemicals will have a difficult time penetrating the gelatinous coating.








Edited by Bill Cody (01/21/13 10:19 PM)
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#111266 - 03/12/08 09:21 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Theo Gallus]
Theo Gallus Offline
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Loc: Central Ohio
Chip Rowland's late Winter filamentous algae FA:
Originally Posted By: Chip Rowland
Hi Pondmeisters,

The ice is leaving here in NW Ohio but I already have a good growth of FA around the edges where the ice is open.







Edited by Bill Cody (01/21/13 10:20 PM)
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#111272 - 03/12/08 09:39 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Theo Gallus]
Bill Cody Offline
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Chip's filamentous algae (FA) superficially apprears to be a species of Spirogyra that commonly is bright grass green and has a slimy slippery feeling. Many Spriogyra species grow well in the late winter to early spring when water is cold to cool. However the FA Cladophora can show up in spring after it began growing in late fall, and after winter and ice out it can become stressed and start floating to the surface.

During early spring when water is cold I think the best way to handle FA is removal, but this is not very practical with massive growths in a 2-5 acre pond. Many ponds and lakes often develop growths of FA in late winter early spring. As water warms and rooted submerged plants begin growing the FA often subsides due to competion for space and nutrients. But in high nutrient situations plenty of nutrients are available even after the rooted plants are growing thus both types of plants thrive. And if a pond has no rooted plants then the FA gets to party hardy all summer long. Then other methods are needed if non-mechanical control is desired.

See my addition at the bottom to Theo's post (lots of links to FA control) above where I mention the use of quick lime for FA control,

As a side note, I'm more interested in how much Chip's yellow perch that were stocked as 8"-10" adults grew for him from last spring to spring of 2008.


Edited by Bill Cody (03/13/08 09:12 PM)
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#122971 - 06/24/08 10:27 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Bill Cody]
Bill Cody Offline
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Pithophora which is a coarse haired filamentous algae common is southern states can be killed with a combination of Reward and copper sulfate as described by Greg Grimes:
"Mix of liquid copper sulfate and reward will kill it just fine. Might have to treat twice to eradicate. If you want high fish production I suggest not using dye." Also see Greg's alternative suggestion for chemical control second post below.

However as we will see this chemical combination is best used in water with lower alkalinities. For Pithophora that grows in harder water or limestone based soils, see the next post by ewest for Pithophors control recomendations by Ohio State Univ.


Edited by Bill Cody (06/06/13 10:01 AM)
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#122999 - 06/25/08 09:51 AM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Bill Cody]
ewest Offline
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Here is the info. As usual it is a mixed answer on the subject but I think we have the answer needed.

http://www.dnr.sc.gov/water/aquaff/pithalgae.html S.C. DNR

Ohio State University Fact Sheet
School of Natural Resources

http://ohioline.osu.edu/a-fact/0003.html This is a great link on FA
Copper-Resistant Algae in hard or high alkaline water:
One form of filamentous coarse hair algae, Pithophora, can be especially troublesome because it is resistant to normal applications of copper compounds. Although it is not widespread, scattered reports of Pithophora in Ohio ponds are received every year. If, after a normal treatment with copper sulfate, there is algae remaining that does not appear to be affected, it may be Pithophora. Positive identification can be made by sending a sample to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at Ohio State University. Samples can be submitted directly to the clinic or through the county offices of Ohio State University Extension.

Pithophora is extremely difficult to control. Its unique cell wall structure and the tight clumping of filaments inhibit the penetration by copper. Additionally, large numbers of resilient spore-like bodies, called akinetes, germinate and provide a continuous source of new plants. Partial, short term control can usually be achieved with either of the following herbicide mixtures:

Ratio Application
Rate of Mixture
Mix 1. Cutrine Plus Liquid
and Diquat/Reward 1:1 2 gallons per acre-foot

Mix 2. Cutrine Plus Liquid
and Hydrothol 191 Liquid 2:1 1 gallon per acre-foot


Additionally, Cide-Kick, a nonionic spray adjuvant, should be added to the mixture at the rate of 1-2 gallons per surface-acre. This material acts as a cell wall penetrant to increase the effectiveness of the herbicides.




Edited by Bill Cody (08/21/14 09:02 PM)
Edit Reason: edited for clarity
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#123100 - 06/25/08 10:42 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: ewest]
Bill Cody Offline
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Greg Grimes offers his recipe for Pithophora control in southern soft waters:
This is what we do. Shawn Banks will tell you our mix works better for us in the SE than in the midwest because our water is so soft (see there is some advantage to having poor water quality)

Mix with a gallon of water:

8 ozs Ktea, Cutrine+, or other chelated copper herbicide, etc. (8% liquid copper)
4 ozs Reward
1 ozs surfactant, also called an adjuvant, examples "Cide Kick II, Cygnet Plus"

It will require couple of treatments.

This what come with experience and the problem with blanket algae statement on how to mix BUT

we give a good mist on the Pithophora, you can see it at this rate will lightly turn the alage blue. You do not have to hit it too hard but also if you spray one area and miss another area it is not giong to kill the missed area. You expect to miss some thus the reason for mutiple applications. THis combo will save quite a bit of money vs. using Reward alone. Hope this helps.


Edited by Bill Cody (06/25/08 10:48 PM)
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#257088 - 05/01/11 06:57 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Bill Cody]
Bill Cody Offline
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For wise management and effective chemical algae control and management, I am currently 'sold' on using peroxygen carbonate (Phycomycin, Pak 27, Green Clean Pro) especially in smaller ponds. Peroxygen leaves no residue, reacts quickly, will oxidize (breakdown) smallest organics, is not affected by water hardness, has minimal impact on invertebrates/fish, and helps oxygenate the pond as it reacts. As opposed to copper based products that always leave a metal based residue byproduct (copper carbonate) that is stable in the enviornment, acumulates with repeated use, and stays in the pond mostly in the sediments. Used correctly peroxygen products can be fairly selective on nuisance bluegreen algae blooms. It can be used efffectively to 'trim the bloom' and retard early stage algae growth.

For Filamentous algae (FA)one should treat it early when it is short and most vulnerable. This technique will require less chemical. Peroxygen products are not as effective when the algae problem is large or massive. Other methods should be used on heavy or dense, massive infestations. Peroxygen at the 80% active ingredient is best IMO. The dosage rate of label is 3-100lbs /acft. For FA control higher amounts in the 50-100 lbs per ac may be needed - again treat early before the growth gets thick and harder to kill. Light doses - applications are effective on floating films of bluegreen algae. I always suggest one test the product at various concentrations / rates in small areas to determine what is needed for each particular problemic algae.

Suggestion added Mar 13 2019
I suggest two methods, one for the hair algae(aka FA) and one for the chara. 1. depending on your preference for use of the heavy metal copper algaecide, a simple common way to temporarily kill it for your 0.1 ac pond is take a 1 cup of copper sulfate (CuSO4); best type to use is the form with particles 1/4"-3/4" size pieces. Divide the cup into 2 to 3 equal parts because you don't want it all dissolving quickly as you circle the pond applying esp when using the small fine sugar size particles. Put the chemical portions in some sort of small cloth bag or old fine mesh sock attached to a long handled garden? rake. Drag this unit quickly alone the shoreline as far out as the rake reaches. You should be able to dose one shoreline with the 1st dose. Refill the sock and do the other shoreline. etc until the entire 1 cup is consumed/dissolved. Another option is to use copper based Cutrine-Plus or similar brand of buffered copper product. Copper sulfate will not control Chara. Don't waste CuSo4 on Chara. Another common non copper product is GreenClean Pro - aka granular hydrogen peroxide. Follow instructions of the bag as a dissolved spray or granular spread technique.

2. Non algacidal method it control FA and Chara is to use tilapia. Tilapia work very good consuming algae and Chara IF you add enough numbers of tilapia to consume the volume of problem plants over the course of 4 to 8 weeks. Remember each fish can only eat just so much food per day. So amount that needs to be consumed is dependent on how big the problem is. IMPORTANT - Tilapia work best when a significant amount of algae is removed (manually or chemically) before the tilapia are introduced. This way they don't have a HUGE backlog(stockpiles) of algae to eat. Also note big predators will eat small size tilapia so be sure you are not just feeding your big bass expensive snacks.




Edited by Bill Cody (03/13/19 05:23 PM)
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#292924 - 05/21/12 02:45 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Theo Gallus]
Bill Cody Offline
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Many have had good success using the correct number and size of blue tilapia for eating filamentous algae FA in ponds. Blue tilapia are reportedly best because they are more prolific than many other strains of tilapia and blue strain variety tolerates lower water temperatures that allows them to eat algae longer in the FA growing season. Larger sized tilapia for stocking are important to avoid LMB predation. Larger sized tipalia will also quickly spawn after stocking to produce lots of young tilapia who eat lots of newly sprouting filamentous algae - FA. They eat most all forms of fialmentous algae. When algae is eliminated they reportedly eat some organic muck that conatin nutritious bacteria from the sediments.

The following is a newspaper article telling about blue tilapia for algae control in water bodies.
http://www.toledoblade.com/MattMarkey/2012/05/18/Blue-tilapia-stars-in-pond-algae-war.html


Edited by Bill Cody (01/21/13 10:22 PM)
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#322710 - 02/19/13 09:33 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Theo Gallus]
Bill Cody Offline
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More discussion on the control of filamentous algae and its causes:
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=322652#Post322652

Here is a good discussion about filamentous algae, its control by chemicals and tilapia, and some basic ecology of filamentous algae and how it "behaves" or why it grows in a pond especially a new pond.
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=337952&page=1

FA problems of a typical pond owner of a previously "used" pond.
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=338018#Post338018

FA manual removal and treatment ideas in this thread
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=418969&page=1

Homemade rake for manual removal of FA
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=413873&page=1

Manual Removal Seine and Parachute Shimmer
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=442640#Post442640

FA compared to mats of Bluegreen algae (Cyanobaceria - Lyngbya, Oscilatoria etc.).
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=454606#Post454606


Edited by Bill Cody (01/06/17 02:09 PM)
Edit Reason: Added a link
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#387560 - 09/16/14 04:19 PM Re: Filamentous Algae, aka Pond Scum/Moss [Re: Theo Gallus]
ewest Offline
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Very good thread on FA pluses and minuses and control options and effects.


http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=387559&page=1

A discussion of the benefits of FA and how some pondowners manage the FA.
http://forums.pondboss.com/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=409492&page=1



Edited by Bill Cody (04/28/15 11:01 AM)
Edit Reason: added link
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