Rob this should help.
Volume and Lipid, Fatty Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of
Golden Shiner Eggs during a Spawning Season
S. E. LOCHMANN,* K. J. GOODWIN, R. T. LOCHMANN, N. M. STONE, AND T. CLEMMENT
Aquaculture/Fisheries Center, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff,
1200 North University Drive, Mail Slot 4912, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71601, USA
North American Journal of Aquaculture 69:116–126, 2007
Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007
Golden shiner reproduction begins in the spring
when water temperature reaches 20C and usually ends
when water temperatures reach 27C. In Arkansas,
reproduction usually occurs between April and June,
and there is a common belief that eggs produced after
June are of poorer quality (Stone et al. 1997).
Fecundity of golden shiners varies with size and ranges
between 2,000 and 200,000 eggs/female (Robison and
Buchanan 1988). Golden shiners are fractional spawners,
releasing 200–500-egg portions disjunctively at
numerous times throughout the spawning season. The
adhesive eggs are released over aquatic vegetation.
Eggs from multiple females accumulate on the
vegetation and receive no further parental care.
Fish were fed
a commercially available extruded, pelleted feed (40%
protein, 9% fat; Rangen, Inc., Angleton, Texas) at a
rate of 5% of initial body weight in daily single
feedings and maintained according to the methods of
Clemment (2003). This diet is higher in protein and
lipid than diets fed to golden shiner in commercial
ponds, but we wanted to examine patterns of nutrient
deposition in eggs of fish fed a nutrient-dense diet so
that nutrient availability would not be a limiting factor.
A traditional method of golden shiner production on
farms is to allow spawning on mats placed into brood
ponds. Depending upon conditions, thousands to
hundreds of thousands of eggs may be laid on a single
0.35-m2 spawning mat in a 24-h period (Stone et al.
2005). Egg-laden mats are transferred to nursery ponds
or moved indoors into water-flow-through tanks.
A 4-cm-thick spawning mat (47 x 37 cm) made of
Spawntex (Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc., Apopka, Florida)
was placed in the tank. The mat was suspended 2–
3 cm below the water surface from polyvinyl chloride
floats. The mat was visually inspected daily for 111 d
(16 March to 4 July) for the presence of eggs.
Spawntex Spawning Mat